Translation initiation sites that precede the main coding sequence (CDS) of a transcript give rise to upstream open reading frames (uORFs). The presence of uORFs affects initiation rates at the CDS by interfering with unrestrained progression of ribosomes across the 5ยด-transcript leader sequence.


Accumulating evidence suggests that uORF-mediated translational control is of outstanding importance for the regulation of protein expression in health and disease.


The current version (v1.0, 2013/07/15) provides links to 467 references in PubMed addressing uORF functions in various taxa and genes as summarized below. [read more]